Vedic Lore Age of the Vedas Upanishads Brahma Devas I Devas II Rta and Satya Yajña RIGVEDA Mandala I Mandala III Mandala V Mandala X Author e-mail me

Mandala I

The Rig Veda

Mandala I

Suktas 1-30, 89, 164


God Agni

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.01)


I laud Agni, the purohita (leader), god of Yajña, ritvik (venerable)

And hotā (summoner of gods or divine powers; or courier/dispenser of Yajña/karma fruits).

He brings along brilliant riches [spiritual and material]. ¶1

See Devas II for explanation. Yajña is cosmic upkeep and weal.

Agni is lauded/meditated by ancient rishis (seers) and equally by recent rishis.

He brings in here the gods (or divine powers or godly people). ¶2

With Agni (surrender or sacrificial fire or its other applications),

Day in and day out, is enjoyed surge in wealth (felicity)

That is admirable and most heroic. ¶3

O Agni, the unharming Yajña (the Cosmic Upkeep) that you comprehensively embark upon,

That alone serves all gods (or upholds whole world). ¶4

Agni is the summoner, kavi-kratu (enlightened will and venturer),

Satya (Truth or effective in deed), magnificently rich and inspiring (sravas),

God (Agni) brings in gods or divine powers. ¶5

O dear Agni, for the offeror (of oblations or ego), you yield what is auspicious (bhadra).

O Angiras, that indeed is your nature (satya). ¶6

Angiras means the enlightened/wise one or the innermost organ i.e. Ātman. In fire sense, it is splinter.

O Agni, day in and day out and day and night, we approach you

And salute (or offer oblation to) you with deliberate commitment. ¶7

(We salute to) the master of all rites (adhvara = Yajña),

The keeper of celestial systems, illuminator of Rta (Turth, or the Vedas),

Ever growing (or young) in its abode (of felicity).8

Rta is the truth of Cosmic Order based on Karma justice and rain cycle (or Yajña).

‘Ever growing in its abode’ refers to ever growing at the Yajña site or in heart of the surrenderor. Ever young refers to God/Ātman, because there is no growth in His case.

May He, like father to son, bestow on us kind providence!

O Agni, accept us for our redemption (svasti).9   

Gods Vayu, Indra-Vayu, Mitra-Varuna                                                                  

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.02)


Yayu (wind and holy speech), lightning and rain (Indra) and Sun together stir and support life cycle. Vayu is vital for our life: Mitra being inbreath; and Varuna, outbreath and waste-ejective air. Mitra-Varuna duo enhance Rta (Cosmic Order and water).

Come. O spectacular Vayu (wind), one worth meditating and worshipping!

Your creations (Somas) are splendid [capable of evoking beatitude];

Protect (or savour) them. Listen to our call (prayer). ¶1

O Vayu, ecstatic singers knowing Time or Light [Brahma]

Glorify you in praise with explicit hymns. ¶2

O Vayu, your far-reaching and prolific tongue (Holy Speech) [versed in the Vedas]

Benefits the one keen on Soma, who offers oblation or meditates. ¶3

Vayu is Vak too. Vak (Holy Speech) has connexion with water/rain or Rta (Cosmic Order). Word dhenā used in the mantra has reference to cow, speech and water.

O Indra-Vayu, these rapturous creations, preparations and intuitions (sutas)

Acknowledge your patronage. You come with gifts of life. ¶4

O Vayu, together with Indra (i.e. Sun) you support life with provisions (vājinī-vasu);

You two bring forth objects and intuitions for our felicity. Speeding, you should come to us. ¶5

O Vayu, you together with Indra (i.e. Sun) should rush unto us;

You are leaders (nara) gifted with sempiternal (as-it-be-ever) wisdom (dhī),

And for us here produce perfect desert (deserved karma-fruit). ¶6

I invoke Mitra, the pious helper (or possessing clear perception)

And Varuna (favourite or favour-granter) eliminating enemies (or obstacles);

Both aid our keenness (dhī) for wish-fulfiller Yajña (that brings rain). ¶7

Enhancers and accomplishers of Rta (Cosmic Order or water)

Are the duo Mitra-Varuna. Rightly so they aid Cosmic Will (kratu). ¶8

The duo Mitra-Varuna are our eloquent seers (kavi)

With their universal presence in myriad forms.

They sustain perception (daksha) and its workings (apas). ¶9  

Gods Ashvins, Indra, Vishve Devas, Sarasvati

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.03)


O gracious masters, phenomenal celebrators, swift-handed twin Ashvins (Fire-Water)!

ENJOY the prodigious workings of Yajña. ¶1

O Ashvins, leaders and upholders of prolific deeds

And of skillful applications for ease and speed! ACCEPT OUR PRAISES. ¶2

O conduits, never-failing accomplishers/manifesters of Yajña and its fruits,

Rapid healers and the life-breaths (rudra-vartanī)! COME. ¶3  

O Indra (or even Sun) of mysterious brilliance (or mystic wisdom), COME.

The vast range of products: virtuous and rapturous,

Reveal your rays or purposes at work underneath. ¶4

O Indra, COME TO US who are rapt and chanting hymns,

Energised by intuition and inspired by wise. ¶5

O Indra, ANSWER SPEEDILY our express mantra chants (calls).

Keep us firm in beatitude (and supplies). ¶6

Vishve Devas (All Gods), the fosterers, upholders and fear-dispellers of men,

Deliverer of ecstasy (Soma) to the surrendered or who offers oblation in fire! COME. ¶7

Expediting wishes (or Yajña that brings rain and weal),

All-Gods rush to bring felicity (Soma) and its mastery (secret knowledge);

Like cows rush to their shelter (or rays to bring day). ¶8

The unharming/upholder All-Gods, congruous in purpose,

Ceaselessly carry out Yajña (medha). ¶9

A long with farm produce (or other merited means),

Providential Saravasti [goddess of intuitions, waters, felicity and holy speech (the Vedas)]

May shower rain on us (or dawn on us, or purify and stimulate our thinking)

And be pleased to promote Yajña (Cosmic Upkeep). ¶10

Impelling auspicious truths/dawns and stimulating right thinking,

Sarasvati upholds the Yajña. ¶11

Through thematic signs, Sarasvati stirs a great flood of water, awakening and activity

And rules (shines or reflects in) all minds. ¶12

God Indra

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.04)


Like cowherd who milks well-yielding cows, so every day, for protection, we call (Indra),

Creator of splendid forms (or right vision) [to milk Cow (Holy Speech, the Veda)] for us. ¶1

O blessed one (Soma-drinker), savour/celebrate (your creations).

Come to us manifesting the felicity hidden in each object (savana).

Rapture of the rich one is enlightening. ¶2

‘Soma-protector’ can also be used instead of ‘Soma-drinker’.

We may comprehend your quintessential, ultimate insights.

Come. Do not bedazzle us. ¶3  

Go far [take trouble] and ask the friendly, perceptive and wise Indra

Who brings good fortune to you and your well-wishers. ¶4

Ask a learned person. Alternatively, seek refuge in Indra who is the teacher of even the most ancient teachers.

O Indra, even if atheists taunt us and ask us to move away, we may abide by your will! ¶5

O punisher of wrongdoers (Indra),

Even if people (including enemy) call us blessed [to distract us],

(Still) we may abide in Indra’s wardship [and never stray]! ¶6

Provide us friendly means for efficient applications, that empower and

Bring joy and intoxicating glory of Yajña (or Soma!). ¶7

O infinite will (Indra), as Sun on drinking water

Strikes down Vritra (cloud) to release rain;

So you (on drinking Soma) protect (uphold) the righteous in their fight. ¶8

O infinite will (Indra), to you we adore as might of the right in crusades

So we should possess and enjoy the riches of life. ¶9

(He is) great store of riches and bliss, friend of Soma-seeker (or host),

And wish-fulfiller (or who gets us across troubles). [Therefore] adore that Indra. ¶10

God Indra

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.05)


O friends! O ones who carry out the stomas (hymns)!

Come, sit down (get down to it).

And sing praises of Indra (propagate his tradition). ¶1

In beatitude (Soma) or on preparing Soma (or on constructive creation),

Go with the praises of Indra, who destroys hordes of enemies (or is the richest of rich) and

Is lord of objects uncountable and prized. ¶2

He alone reveals himself in yoga to us;

For us he eventuates the riches; he, the wisdom.

He may come to us with all power and provisions! ¶3

His two powers (hari) are there in the world as never overcome by any rival in battle.

Sing praises for that Indra. ¶4

These pious creations (or herb juice preparations)

For protection and enjoyment of the created creatures (suta)

Sustain and sublime the world. ¶5

Some explain it as Somas mixed with curd.

You readily grow into prodigious patron

And keeper of the created ones, O august intentioned Indra. ¶6

O laudable man (Indra), these speeding (or passing) creations and celestial bodies,

Enchanting as they are (Somas), be readily available to you!

May they be auspicious to you! ¶7

To you the praises do glorify, to you the elaborate hymns as well, O infinite will (Indra).

Our speeches may venerate you too! ¶8

Indra with his ceaseless care may bestow [on us] comprehensive potency

That is globally venturesome. ¶9

O Indra who loves Holy Speech! Let no man be hostile to us.

Drive away slaughter of bodies, because you can (being lord). ¶10

Note: body alone is slain.

Gods Indra (1-3, 10), Maruts (4, 6, 8, 9), Indra-Maruts (5, 7)

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.06)


Yogis connect to (or identify as Self)

The benign (arusha) omniscient (charanta) Brahma (bradhna) present everywhere,

They thus bask in his pre-eminence. (1) ¶1

The fiery (arusha) giant (bradhna) Sun pulls heavenly bodies to orbit around.

His resplendence alone makes them shine. (2) ¶1

Seekers who eagerly control the intimate (arusha) life-breath (bradhna) moving all beings,

Such rapt seekers shine (stand out) in heavenly abode. (3) ¶1

Word ‘bradhna’ means mahat (big).

To Indra, they attribute desired bipolar powers of this heavenly carriage,

Unconquerable powers carry the world (men)

And also bring variety, colour and brightness to life. ¶2

Or they apply these powers for betterment of life.

O mortals, get ready to turn ignorance into light, and things ugly into objects prized,

In the company of righteous ‘early birds’ (or those who get up early). ¶3

Bearing Yajña-created waters (vapours), Maruts fall as rain, with the objective of food.

Strangely, again they rise to their womb (sky). (1) ¶4

Then again, with the force of Yajña-borne waters and Maruts (life breath &c. called Prānas),

You re-enter womb for temporal life. (2) ¶4

Indra with companion Maruts (storm gods)

Smashes toughest blocks, even what are deep hidden

And reaches all realms of the world. (1) ¶5

Lord of senses in the man (Indra) self-fulfills:

Aided by discerning Maruts (sage priests), man crosses tough psychological blocks

Even what are seated deep within. (2) ¶5

Like lofty scholars (or speeches) exactly carry out (or explain)

The celebrated knowhow of wealth generation (and even rains),

You too should do analogously. ¶6

Going along with fearless Indra, you (Maruts) can be noticeably observed.

You both are beaming and enchanting. (1) ¶7

When you (individual) see yourself one with fearless Indra,

Then you two (or you too) share ecstasy and vibes. (2) ¶7

When backed by Indra’s aides (Maruts) that are: favoured, blameless and brilliant,

Yajña (makha) like the mighty one furthers welfare of the world.  ¶8

By which and wherein holy speeches and beings freely move and thrive,

These free-moving Maruts rising above (with vapours)

Bring rain down from clouds, with the help of Sun. ¶9

We get favours from this Earth, from Heaven or whatever quarter of universe.

We pray to (or approach) supreme Indra. ¶10  

God Indra

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.07)


Sāma-bards  hail Indra alone, with Brhat (Great) Sāma (or of the Sama Veda);

Rik-chanters laud Indra with the Rig Veda hymns;

While others with the adorations of the Yajur Veda. [So you should do!] ¶1

Bound by the Veda (Holy Speech), together with rules of good-bad karma (the two powers),

Indra alone mingles with all object and beings [and rules];

Indra’s nature being light (guidance) and discipline (order). ¶2  

Or Indra rules speech and all motion.

Indra mounts Sun in the sky to equip proper sight

And with rays raises clouds up for rain. ¶3

O rigorous Indra, protect us with your invulnerable wardship

In tussles and in innumerous fights (or even wars) for riches.  ¶4

In smaller and greater wars [including internal conflicts], we call Indra

Who is unrelenting and fittingly drubs the enemies. ¶5

O formidable (Indra), wish fulfiller and preceptor of Truth (satrā)!

For us he should open the vaults of his treasure (waters and Holy Speech). ¶6

Sublime hymns of thunder-armed Indra cover every creation and eventuality.

I am incapable to fathom his glory. ¶7  

Like bull to herd of cows, he, the indomitable sovereign, having seminal power (ojas),

Propagates the tradition of virtuous men. ¶8

Indra is the only one worthy of veneration

Among all men, eight Vasus (establisher gods) and five worlds. ¶9

For you people, we pray to sovereign Indra

With undisputed supremacy over all objects and beings;

He alone ought to be venerated. ¶10  

God Indra

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.08)


O Indra, for our protection, constantly provide riches that are:

Ever conquering, most prized and overwhelming. ¶1

We, soldiers unarmed or on horseback, your protégés

May repel our enemies! ¶2

Under your aegis, we should obtain superior fire arms (vajra)

And vanquish our rivals in battle. ¶3

O Indra, under your auspices, we, accompanied with armed warriors,

May repel the rival armies! ¶4  

Great is Indra, rather supreme. Hail, armed Indra!

His power is extensive, like heaven. ¶5

Wisdom-loving learned men should endeavour for [two things]:

Victory over enemies and tutoring of children. ¶6

Like ocean for water and life-breath for speech,

So he pulls in (or takes into shelter) and protects/nourishes

Objects (or nectars) of the vast earth. ¶7

Like a branch with ripe fruits (is rewarding), so for offeror (of oblation) is

His Speech (Mahī) that thought-stirring, enlightening and pedagogic. ¶8

So indeed, O Indra, your splendour and protection

Be forthwith available to me, the offeror! ¶9

So indeed his cherished, explicit hymns (stoma) are

For Indra who best protects and celebrates creations (Soma). ¶10

God Indra

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.09)


O Indra, you are great and go-getter (or guide). You thrill us with provisions.

You with your might pervade (savour) every bit of your creations. ¶1

For the sake of this world, in the name of relisher Indra,

Apply these [fire & water] in skills to secure common weal (or felicity). ¶2

O supervisor and intuitive (Indra), with felicitous hymns (stoma),

Fulfil us well in, or celebrate, these splendid creations or acts. ¶3

O Indra, I chant your Holy Speeches (the Vedas) that you warmly accept and

That ennoble you as wish-fulfiller (rain-giver) and keeper of worlds. ¶4

O Indra, whatever your splendid, magnificent, potent riches there are,

You should foster those for us! ¶5

O omniscient Indra, there you prompt us into riches (or felicity);

We who are unwavering and honour-loving. ¶6  

O Indra, secure for us vast, significant and enduring inspiration (sravas),

Gifted with cows (or wit), food (strength) and full age (or world conquest). ¶7

O Indra, secure for us the vast wealth (sravas) of infinite wisdom with numerous sweet fruits.

Satisfy our need for chariot-equipped armies. ¶8

For supply of life-base (vasu), we praising with Vedic hymns pray

To lord Indra, who pervades, supports and enlightens us all. ¶9

In each creation (or libation) and in each magnificent object,

Indra has unmistakable presence.

To that great Indra, fortunate man (ari) owes his happiness and power. ¶10

God Indra

Rishi Madhuchhandas Vāisvāmitra (RV I.10)


Sāma-songs laud you; Rik-mantras venerate you, O Indra of infinite deeds!

Knowers of Brahma raise you like pole or promote you through clan [as oral tradition]. ¶1

AS FOR life-sustaining Sun with aides like wind,

In its course from mountain to mountain

And in energising multitudinous activity;

SO DOES Indra stir up the purpose (in man). ¶2

Employ the two powers that pull, fulfil and keep the world in its ordained course (orbit);

And accept our praises, O Indra, the protector/enjoyer of objects (somapā). ¶3

O supportive Indra, come. Teach us well the hymns (stomas).

Reveal the Brahma principle; and accept and boost our Yajña. ¶4

Like one does for progeny and friends,

So he (Indra) be one to impart laudable and enriching hymns

To us, the one devout and enterprising (akin to Indra)! ¶5

Him alone we pray for favour (friendship), riches and might.

He is Sakra, the one who can do.

Indra graciously gives us wealth (or life-supports). ¶6

O venerable Indra, from you comes water (or wealth or fame) abundant and handy.

Release hordes of cows (or reveal mysteries of Holy Speech) and make us rich. ¶7

Heaven and Earth together cannot cover you, the venerable one.

Prompt our senses toward successful execution of worthy deeds

[Or provide us the cows (Holy Speech) and waters that are victorious and blissful.] ¶8

O considerate Indra, like friend attentive to our words,

Quickly respond to my call and accept my hymns.

Enable this hymn of mine to connect us to Inmost Ātman. ¶9

We know you as the most beneficent [unlike others]

Who responds to our prayers in times of need.

We earnestly pray for thousand-fold providence of the most beneficent. ¶10

O deft Indra, you rapturous; accept offering from us.

Rejuvenate us; make us prodigious sage (rishi). ¶11

O praiseworthy! Holy praises (hymns) from world over may overwhelm you!

May these eternal praises proliferate; these agreeable praises be celebrated! ¶12  

God Indra

Rishi Jetā of Madhuchhandas (RV I.11)


Entirety of hymns (Holy Speech) glorifies  sovereign Indra (God or king),

The ruler of oceans and skies and

Of spectacular chariots (e.g. celestial bodies in orbit) and of fortunes.

He is lord of truth (or protector of the righteous). ¶1

O mighty Indra, under your aegis (sakhya), we fortunate ones may never fear from anyone!

We may laud you, the never-overtaken ever-victorious! ¶2

Indra’s bounties are ancient, long-lived; his protections just never wither

For one who sponsors the hymn-chanters with gifts of food and cattle. ¶3

There emerges youthful, most lauded, infinitely resplendent Indra,

Eloquent seer (kavi), saviour (thunder-armed),

Breaker of forts (or corporeal limits) and upholder of cosmic works. ¶4

You (lord of rain) release water from ray-soaked Vala (water-withholding clouds).

Celestial bodies at large orbit you (the nucleus of universe). ¶5

O hero Indra, calling you the ocean of bounties, I may realize you!

O praiseworthy, your missionaries contemplating you, may realise you! ¶6

O Indra, you with your powers ward off the exploitative trickster.

The wise people who know this secret, you promote their fame. ¶7

With the Veda hymns (stoma), laud Indra, who is sovereign by his eminence.

Thousands are his bounties; nah, legions indeed. ¶8  

God Indra

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.12)


We choose Agni, as the hotā

(Summoner of gods or divine powers and dispenser of karma fruit),

The messenger [carrier of havya and common weal],

The benefactor of whole universe [through applications of fire].

He is the facilitator of this Yajña (vehicle of Cosmic Order and instrument of Rain Cycle). ¶1

Havya is normally called the offering/food for gods. However, it means anything called for or sought after. So it means merited offering and desired resources as well.

With merited men, skills and offerings,

Always call/pray to Agni (fire) and Agni (Ātman/Brahma), the lord of masses,

Loved by all, and havya-vāt (carrier of havya for common weal). ¶2

O Agni, bring and manifest gods (godly people or divine powers)

For the sacrificer (or surrenderor); you are our hotā, worthy of our investigation. ¶3

O Agni, solve for the devotees (or sacrificers) the mystery of your acting

As messenger and permeating and gracing skies (and hearts of devotees)

Accompanied by gods. ¶4

O Agni, you are radiant one (or reveal wisdom to us),

You carry purified butter (ghee) and bring water.

Eliminate evil and violent qualities (or people). ¶5

Blazing-faced Agni (3 forms of fire) shines under the auspices of that Agni (Ātman/Brahma).

He is youthful, eloquent seer (kavi), carrier of havya

And guardian of the house (or cosmos). ¶6

Or this Agni (fire) is kindled by Agni in sticks, or Agni in the lightning (electricity).

O man, in this Yajña, worship/meditate (or offer oblation to) Agni

That is kavi, truth-natured, divine and destroyer of evils and diseases (amīva). ¶7

O god Agni, as always become saviour of the host/devotee

Who worships you as messenger (carrier) and guide. ¶8

O purging Agni, enrapture the offerer (or pious person) who tends Agni

For summoning gods (including holy men or divine powers). ¶9  

O purifying and brilliant Agni, bring gods (or wise men) here

To our Yajña and to our offerings (or libations). ¶10  

He should bring riches and resources suitable for heroic progeny,

For us lauding him with our recent hymn (Gāyatra) recitations. ¶11

O Agni, accept for us this stoma (hymn): we who are purified by your lustre (or wisdom)

And we who are with all the invocations of gods or holy men or powers. ¶12

Gods Agni &c. (ĀprĪ Gods)

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.13)


These are 12 gods; one each of every mantra. They are called Āprī (in the sense of pervading and pleasing).

O hotā, purging and well-kindled (or well-meditated) Agni!

Bring gods (or divine powers) here and make them compatible with the host or devotee. ¶1

O seer and never-failing Tanūnapāt (Agni or ghee)!

Today make our Yajña delightful for the benefit of gods (or all beings). ¶2

In Yajña we invoke Agni (fire), the beloved and lauded by men,

Nurtured with oblations swallowed by its lovely tongues [seven flames]. ¶3

O adored Agni, you bear in gods in the most pleasurable chariot.

You are the hotā, so designated by wise or Manu (progenitor of mankind). ¶4

Even celestial bodies resemble magnificent chariots. Or chariots are suggestive of vehicles driven by some form of energy (indicative of Agni’s application).

O wise men, completely permeate and energise the altar, sky or heart of devotee (Barhis)

With offerings of ghee (or with Satya = essence of the Vedas),

Where there is sighted then the water (or immortality). ¶5

Let there be Doors, serving the purposes of Yajña today,

Which are separated, ventilating, vitalising, and passing adequate light. ¶6

I invoke [or utilise] the elegant Day & Night in this house and

At the Yajña site (i.e. altar) so they grace them with comforts. ¶7

I invoke the two divine, far-reaching hotās (Agni and Vayu)

Who have handsome flames (tongues) that enhance our Yajña. ¶8

Idā (motivational), Sarasvatī (revelatory) and Mahī/Bhāratī (pedantic):

The three goddesses of Holy Speech [stirring intuition and waters] situate in the three planes

Are unharming and caring; they should grace our altar (or heart). ¶9

Here we invoke primordial Tvashtri (light/guide),

Molding in all shapes and forms; he alone should be

Our resort or reliable means/source (or object of investigation). ¶10

O god of vegetation, you deliver the food

For gods (and, in turn, for all creatures).

Make the offerer (host or devotee) learned. ¶11

At the host’s place, perform Yajña coupled with holy speech (svāhā), to bless him.

There I call the gods. ¶12  

Gods Vishve devas (All Gods)

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.14)


O Agni, accompanied by All Gods (or all powers or holy men)

[or when worshipped with offerings], COME

To celebrate and ennoble our hymns in your service. ¶1   

O learned Agni (God), bring in gods (or divine powers/skills)

As intuitive people or priests (kanvas) mindful of you, invoke you and praise you. ¶2

[So to] Indra-Vayu (electricity and air), Brihaspati (lord of Sun/stars and the Vedas),

Friendly Agni (fire), Pūshan (fosterer Moon or Earth), Bhaga (god of felicity),

Ādityas and Maurts (storm gods). ¶3

Those gods: sweet, ecstatic, blissful, enchanting,

Brave and daring (like armies) are your keepers. ¶4

The intuitive people, well-resourced, courteou hosts, sacrificers and

Keen for your patronage laud you [so we should do]. ¶5

Backed by ghee or water, those willing carriers (fire etc.)  of your dictum [of Yajña]

Set up cardinal systems for enjoyment of beatitude (i.e. Soma). ¶6

O sweet-tongued Agni, bless sacrificers and enhancers of Rta with consorts;

Enrapture them [in their pursuit]. ¶7

O Agni, those honourable committed/devout may savour/taste with your help

The sweet ecstasy of sacrifices [or pursuits]. ¶8

The wise hotā (priest) summons all divine powers (All Gods)

In the morning, from the celestial (solar) realm. ¶9

O leader Agni, along with Indra (rain), Vayu (pleasure- and life-giving wind),

Savour the felicity of life (Mitra) from all the regions of universe. ¶10

O Agni, you are hotā (harbinger of divine powers, or dispenser of karma fruit),

You are designated so by the wise people or progenitor (Manu).

You preside over all the Yajñas.

Make our well-intended Yajña harmonious and compatible. ¶11

Employ in chariot (of life) these red flames that tract and raise.

With them, bring gods or divine powers to us. ¶12

Gods indra &c.

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.15)


‘Drink Soma in every season (or from to time) is in the sense of celebration also.

O Indra (or Sun), drink sap (Soma) of plants of the season.

Those nectars in their respective locales are enchanting and owe their birth to you. ¶1

O Maruts, drink sap (Soma) of plants of the season.

Purifying by nature, you purify (and sanctify) Yajña;

For you are indeed benefactors. ¶2

O Neshtr (lightning/electricity), drink sap (Soma) of plants of the season.

Making things accessible, you may accede to Yajña; for you are the source of riches. ¶3

Tvashtri is the god of this mantra.

O Agni, bring here gods or divine powers, settle them and

Adorn them in their three source places (birth, name and location).

Drink sap (Soma) of plants of the season ¶4

O Indra (Vayu), savour nectar (Soma) of the season from magnificent treasury of worlds;

For you have timeless affinity with them. ¶5

O resolute Mitra-Varuna (Prāna and Apāna winds)!

You exceptionally extend to mighty, intuitive (or creative) Yajña

As is appropriate to occasion (season). ¶6

Seekers of dravina (wealth and power), well prepared for the occasion,

Adore the dravina-giving god Agni

In their worthy pursuits (adhvara) and Yajñas. ¶7

Dravina-giving (bounteous) Agni may bless us with means of life (vasu)

That we oft hear and seek in these divine worlds. ¶8

In line with the benign will of dravina-giving god or man and in every season (time)

You seek and pray to Providence (Neshtr) and flourish. ¶9

O dravina-giving Agni! That we offer oblations every season (at all times)

To you, the Fourth. Therefore, definitely, you are our patron. ¶10

Fourth has reference to the four-quartered Ātman of the Mandukya Upanishad. He is witness of (and other than) the waking, dream and deep sleep states.

Ashvins (Sun-Moon) who are purifying, illumining and

Opportune vehicles of Yajña. … Draw the sap (savour the nectar). ¶11

Householder’s fire ritual, season in season out, subserves the cosmic Yajña (upkeep).

Therefore, assist gods working for the godly person. ¶12 

God indra

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.16)


O Indra, super powers (or sunrays) carry for you (rain-giver or wish-fulfiller)

Or act as your eyes or intimations;

They draw sap (nectar or water) for the sake of creation or celebration. ¶1

The two powers bring closer brilliant, water-bearing lights and Sun

In the most pleasurable (celestial) chariot. ¶2

We call Indra in the morning; we call Indra in good will (Yajña).

We call Indra to savour sap of plants (or celebrate life). ¶3

Come to the creation (or ecstasy) with celestial bodies equipped with powerful rays.

We call you on creating (or in ecstasy). ¶4

Come to our song of praises (stoma) and our pursuits (or rituals) for common weal,

To drink (savour), like a thirsty deer. ¶5

These Soma juices are created and offered at Yajña site

(OR delightful surrender occurs in the heart of devotee or yogi OR waters are created in sky);

O Indra, savour or bless them for the sake of might. ¶6

This ageless/beginningless, most blissful stoma (hymn) may touch (or stir) your heart!

Now, accept my offering (of Soma) [or celebrate my enlightened surrender]. ¶7

Indra, the eliminator of foes (or obstacles) indeed pervades

This entire, delightful and ever-renewing world (savana)

For restoring zeal and for taste of Soma (ecstasy). ¶8

O infinite will (Indra), we intent on you may adore you! He may fulfill us

With cows (or Holy Speeches) and horses (or powers)! ¶9  

Gods indra-Varuna

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.17)


I aspire for the protection of the luminous (or royal) Indra-Varuna.

They should favour us by bestowing  the same (supremacy) on us. ¶1

For that protection, you two indeed respond to prayer of a learned like me.

You are the upholders of mankind. ¶2

Indra-Varuna may quench our beseeched need for riches;

We long for their companionship. ¶3

We may become destination of the pious, wise and bounteous men (or qualities)! ¶4

For Indra (fire/electricity/Sun) is the celebrated will (source)

Of the bounteous men (or qualities)

And Varuna (water/wind/Moon), of the pre-eminent ones. ¶5

We may revel in their providence and hold it safe;

We may spend it judiciously. ¶6

I invoke Indra-Varuna for wonderful wealth.

Establish us well in triumph. ¶7

[I invoke] Indra-Varuna to preside over our intellectual pursuits and pious acts.

Shower on us your blessed protection. ¶8

O Indra-Varuna, what I engage in and what espouses the knowhow,

That hearty praise may please you! ¶9  

Gods Brahmanaspati, SADASASPATI &c.

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.18)


O Brahmanaspati! MAKE ME Yajña (ecstasy) facilitator, propagator and skilled,

One who is magnificent in deed. ¶1

That (Brahmanaspati) wealthy, fosterer, knower and realiser of life-bases (vasu-vit) and

Remover of evils (diseases) may swiftly bless us! ¶2

O Brahmanaspati! Save us from ignoble man’s trick.

My magnanimous deed or praise may never go in vain! ¶3

Whom Indra (rain), Brahmanaspati (Brihaspati i.e. Holy Speech)

And Soma (herb juices or ecstasy) raise; his glory indeed never suffers. ¶4  

O Brahmanaspati! You are Indra (Sun/wind), Soma (herbs) and Dakshinā (Right Practice).

You save man from evil/sin (or ignorance). ¶5

I may have access to the wondrous and venerable Lord of Assembly/Universe (Sadasaspati),

The giver of just rewards (karma fruit) and intuition (medhā)!

I may be favourite of supreme lord (Indra)! ¶6

Without that wise (Sadasaspati) , no Yajña gets ever accomplished;

He brings about fruition of wishes (yoga) of the committed ones. ¶7

He makes the offering-practice work, fulfils the cosmic Yajña.

So the sacrifice reaches the gods (or achieves its purpsoe). ¶8

I see praiseworthy (Narāsamsa/Sadasaspati), the inexorable Lord of Assembly,

Spacious like heavens, ultimate keeper and upholder of

Creatures and objects as part of Yajña. ¶9

Gods Agni & Maruts

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.19)


For lovely Yajña and its safeguard, you are invoked (or applied).

O Agni, come with [or bring] Maruts (storm gods or priests). ¶1

Neither any god nor mortal can exceed your eminence and will.

O Agni, come with [or bring] Maruts (life breaths). ¶2

All those amiable gods (or learned people or priests)

Who know the mighty quarters of universe; O Agni, come with those Maruts. ¶3

Those austere, indomitable, who by their eminence

Unravel the mysteries of the venerable [or Sun]; O Agni, come with those Maruts. ¶4

Those fair-minded rulers, mighty tearers and eliminators of foes/diseases;

O Agni, come with those Maruts. ¶5

Those gods (or god-likes) who abide in the delightful heaven of bliss;

O Agni, come with those Maruts. ¶6

Those who scatter rain-clouds in the skies and deluge oceans with the water;

O Agni, come with those Maruts. ¶7

Who aided with the beams span and overtake the skies with force;

O Agni, come with those Maruts. ¶8

I create [and offer] delightful drink for you to first savour;

O Agni, come with those Maruts. ¶9

Or I surrender myself to your will.  

Gods ribhus

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.20)


Ribhus (Rbhus)  are of celestial origin and are perceptive, wise ones, or even priests and craftsmen.

This wealth-bestowing stoma (hymn) is sung in voice

By the learned Ribhus for producing august birth (next life). ¶1

Who for mastery of universe (Indra)

Apply the precisely-worded (or mantra) powers with care and skill

And promote Yajña (common weal). ¶2

They with the unfailing powers (fire and water)

Make the life an easy walk, and cow (Holy Speech) fulfilling. ¶3

Straightforward (fair-minded), true counsel (truth-bearing speech) Ribhus

Again and again, attend, apply [these powers] and support cosmic Yajña. ¶4

For you people, there come ecstasies,

Aided with Indra, Maruts (winds) and brilliant Adityas (sunrays). ¶5

Seeing the working of Tvashtri (creator or craftsman),

You (people) too apply four elements (except ether) to your advantage. ¶6

They hold us engaged in felicity (ratna)

By admirably producing threefold pleasures through each of seven-typed acts. ¶7

Acts are charity (gift), hospitality, Yajña, and duties pertaining to four life stages.

Those carriers among eminent ones (or gods) uphold and savour

The felicity (bhāga) of Yajña through pious acts. ¶8

Gods Indra-agni.

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.21)


We invoke here Indra-Agni, the keepers of universe and best celebrators of creation (Soma).

We seek their felicitous hymn (stoma) alone. ¶1

O priests (or leaders), laud them in the holy rituals (Yajñas);

Invoke Indra-Agni who enrich us; sing Gāyatra hymns in their praise. ¶2

For acknowledgement as friend and for upkeep of universe,

The keepers Indra-Agni we invoke. ¶3

We invoke the rigorous and truthful.

Indra-Agni must grace this delightful, creative Yajña! ¶4

Those great saviours of the assembly (or universe) should destroy the evil.

May enemies be without subjects and progeny! ¶5

With that truth, awaken us in the beatific state.

O Indra-Agni, provide us your blessed protection. ¶6  

Gods Ashvins (1-4), savitri (5-8), agni (9-10), goddesses (11)

Spouses of indra, varuna & agni(12), heaven-Earth (13-14), earth (15), vishnu (16-21)

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.22)


Two Ashvins engaging at the dawn should visit us

And waken us to the felicity of creation. ¶1

We call Asvisns who with fast-moving and magnificent chariots (or imagination)

Reach the skies (or experience the heavenly bliss). ¶2

O Ashvins, with your sweet Speech of great truths (i.e. the Vedas),

You illuminate/create the Yajña. ¶3

O Ashvins, wherever you in your car (vehicle) go,

That is not far from the Somin’s (or Yajña-host’s) home. ¶4

For protection, I call the golden-handed Savitri (Creator).

He is the awakener, and the home of divinity. ¶5

Praise Savitri, who never fails in providing waters (or in karma-award).

We look forward to his discipline (vrata). ¶6

We call Savitri, the sight of men and

The distributor of wondrous bounties (vasu = assets, facilities). ¶7

O friends, get down to it for Savitri is laudable.

He is the benefactor and adorns us indeed with riches. ¶8

O Agni, bring accompanying powers (or spouses) of gods (or of brilliant objects)

To Tvashtri (creator or smith) for his delight. ¶9

O most energetic Agni, make celestial objects, sacrificial art,

Splendour of Sun (Bhāratī), day and night, and Holy Speech well disposed to us. ¶10

Comprehensive godliness and manliness may accompany us

With great protection and bliss. (1) ¶11

Versatile and pious wives may go with us as great companions. (2) ¶11

To spouses of Indra, Agni and Varuna (or their powers), I pray for weal and beatitude. ¶12

Vast Heaven and Earth may willingly perfect our Yajña and

Sate us with supplies and supports. ¶13

Wise celebrate with conviction (or fingers) the nectar-like waters of the two [above]

In the definite realm of Gandharva (Vayu or Holy Speech).  ¶14

O Earth, you should be thornless, comforitng sanctuary (or palatial home).

Give us your immense protection. ¶15

What Vishnu created seven regions starting with Earth,

With that, gods (or mighty ones) may protect us! ¶16

Seven regions refer to seven chakras or vyahritis.

Vishnu animates and upholds this threefold world

And keeps his nature/presence guised in every atom of this world. ¶17

The word samūdha means guised and investigable. He pervades this world so he could be investigated or contemplated.

Indomitable Vishnu, keeper of universe, then keeping the laws,

Made the threefold worlds (or uttered the holy words). ¶18

The word pada stands for step, status and word. Words are the vyahritis (bhūr, bhuvah, svah).

Look at the works of Vishnu wherefrom flow the ageless canons (laws).

He is the worthy companion of Indra. ¶19

According to some, Indra is here for individual who seeks power, and Vishnu for Universal Self. However, the mantra is suggestive of the eternal connexion between Indra as rain god and Vishnu as Yajña.

Discerning sages see clearly Vishnu’s supreme nature/state at all times;

Like eye sees this expanse clearly in daylight. ¶20

Vigilant learned men and devotees constantly kindle as Yajña (or evoke within as Ātman)

That supreme nature/state of Vishnu. ¶21  

Gods Vayu (1), indra-Vayu (2-3), mitra-Varuna (4-6),

MarutvĀn indra (7-9), vishve devas (10-12), pushan (13-15), apas (16-22), agni (23-24)

Rishi Medhātithi Kānva (RV I.23)


O Vayu, come and espouse these desirable and delightful products and creations (Somas)

That are rapidly moving, volatile. Enjoy them. ¶1

We call both gods, Indra-Vayu, that reach up to the skies,

For celebrating the occasion/creation (soma). ¶2

For protection, learned men call quick-witted Indra-Vayu,

Who are thousand-eyed and rule our emotions. ¶3

We pray to the tutors/creators Mitra-Varuna,

Who possess pious perception (and might),

For celebrating the occasion/creation (soma). ¶4

FOR according to cosmic scheme of things (Rta),

They boost Rta and reveal the truth or law (Rta); SO we invoke Mitra-Varuna. ¶5

Let Varuna defend us with all the aids

And Mitra make us fortunate, accomplished. ¶6

We call Indra along with Maruts to bless our sacrifices [operations].

He with the troop [of winds or learned men] may satiate. ¶7

Marut troops with Indra (Sun) as their chieftain are All Gods;

They shower Pushan’s bounties; they may hear my call! ¶8

O bounteous gods, aided with mighty Indra, eliminate the evil (obstacle).

Let not the blasphemer dictate us ever. ¶9

We call fierce, sky-rangers All Gods (Vishve Devas), Maruts [to come]

For blessing our offering (surrender). ¶10

AS with Maruts, the fierce lightning gains victory over clouds,

SO you, O men, overcome obstacle to bliss. ¶11

Born of gleaming lightning everywhere, Maruts may espouse us and enrapture us! ¶12

AS one is bright on finding lost animal, SO, O luminous Pushan,

You illumine with your light this mysterious heavenly haven. ¶13

Luminous Pushan reveals [himself]

As ruler, deep hidden in heart cave and in awe-inspiring heaven. ¶14

He indeed spoils me again and again with delightful six seasons and animals and food,

Like a farmer, with crops. ¶15

Like brothers support each other, so these motherly waters do, flowing in allocated paths

And providing sweet nectar, for upkeep of all. ¶16

Those Waters in the Sun or along with the Sun should further the benign Yajña. ¶17

The divine Waters that sunrays draw (drink) from rivers and oceans.

I invoke them to produce desired effects or offerings. ¶18

O gods (or learned men), there lies nectar (life) in the Waters

And they heal too. Grasp their glory and thrive. ¶19

Soma revealed to me that there dwell in panacean Waters

The all-healing balms and the Agni that comforts entire world. ¶20

O Waters, inject the most advantageous tonic in my body

So that I live long and enjoy the grace of Surya. ¶21

O Waters, they bring along and manifest [in the next life]

Whatsoever I sinned or reviled or lied [or even what I did virtuous]. (1) ¶22

O Waters, remove from me whatsoever I sinned or reviled or lied. (2) ¶22

Being physically nectarean, I customarily approach and receive Waters warmly.

O Agni, bless me with your splendour [in the new life]. ¶23

Bless me with splendour, O Agni, with progeny/subjects and with longevity.

Gods know this [secret of my next life]

And Indra (Vayu) along with sages knows this! ¶24  

Agni, Vayu and Waters bring about the life ahead and hereafter, along with joys and sorrows (appropriate to one’s karma and faith).

Gods Prajapati, Agni, Savitri or Bhaga (3-5), Varuna (6-15)

Rishi Sunah Sepa Ājīgarti (RV I.24)


Who indeed is the first among immortals? Who brings us back into grand Nature [rebirth]?

Whom should we regard as (true) father and mother?

Precisely, which auspicious name of God should we meditate? ¶1

The mantra has two senses. The word ‘ka’ used in the mantra means ‘who’ as well as Prajapati (Lord Creatures). Still, answer is given in the next mantra.

Agni is the auspicious name of God, the first among immortals.

He brings us back into the grand Nature. His name indeed we should meditate

And him we should regard as (true) father and mother. ¶2

To you we pray, O Savitri (Creator), the lord of cherished objects,

The noble and venerable bliss (Bhāga) ever shielding us! ¶3

Your felicity (bhaga) that is most lauded, beyond reproach, true and beneficial

And that is what not, is held in hands. ¶4

O Bhaga, by your protection, we may hugely accomplish your felicity and fame

And undertake to attain ambitious fortunes. ¶5

Neither these birds nor moving heavenly bodies can cover your dominion, might or will,

Nor these constantly-flowing waters can fathom your entity,

Nor these winds blowing can measure you. ¶6

Nature is just existence; creatures are existence and consciousness. But you are bliss (Soma) as well.

King Varuna of pious perception (or might) descends rays (and rains)

On the tree-like world hanging in the sky.

Rays stand on the things of the worlds and

Are within us as heat, light and intuition. ¶7

As king Varuna restrains atheists and tormentors,

So he restrains heavenly bodies like Sun on vast paths/courses (orbits) in sky

Where no paths in reality exist. ¶8

O king, hundred or rather thousand be your herbs (or balms);

Vast, comprehensive be your counsel (inspiration)!

Block from us calamity (unright) and relieve us of sin committed by agnostics. ¶9

The above held constellations are seen in night,

In night the lit moon comes: where they go during day! [No where.]

These move under inviolate scheme (Rule/Law) of Varuna. ¶10

O most-lauded Varuna! I approach you expectantly and host you,

Praying with offerings and with hymns;

Not offended, you awaken me into Truth; do not abridge our life. ¶11

Learned one (Sunah Sepa) talks of that (Truth) alone day and night

Whose intimations figure in his heart.

That alone is Truth (knowledge) and Reality (Brahma) taught to us.

Supreme Varuna so grasped by us may deliver us from evil (ignorance). ¶12

Learned one (Sunah Sepa) calls and grasps that Aditya (Varuna)

Hidden in three [yogas or causal qualities] and evident in all workings;

Wise and indomitable king Varuna may deliver him and snap all the traps! ¶13

Varuna is counted as chief among 12 Adityas.

 O life-giving, enlightened king Varuna! We dare not to offend you.

We pray to you with salutations, offerings and sacrifices.

For us, destroying our sins committed,

You loosen the bonds [of karma and fruits]. ¶14

O Varuna, loosen the bonds above, below and between.

O Aditya (Varuna), so abiding by your law, we be free from sin and enjoy eternal bliss! ¶15

God Varuna

Rishi Sunah Sepa Ājīgarti (RV I.25)


O god Varuna! Whatever ignorant subjects routinely violate the law

And then are disciplined and trained [as an act of grace]. ¶1

Do not urge us to kill anyone ignorantly offending us;

Do not inflame us against anyone humbled. ¶2

Like charioteer connects horse to chariot,

We connect to you mindfully and with your hymns, for your favour. ¶3

As birds frightened flee away from nests,

So the ones outrageous and crazy for money should flee from me. ¶4

To win his favour, when [or how] do we propitiate Varuna,

The leader with heroic elegance and one with comprehensive vision? ¶5

Like musicians carrying and playing instruments delight men,

So do they (Sun and Wind) for committed devotee/sacrificer. ¶6

He knows the craft of birds flying in the sky

And knows the ship craft  as well. ¶7

He knows 12 lunar months in which laws are observed and creatures born.

He knows the 13th month that is born extra. ¶8

He knows the course of the vast, pervasive and mighty Wind

And the things that rest in it. ¶9

Pious-willed Varuna observing holy law dwells in the creatures to govern them. ¶10

Therefore, the perceiving Varuna watches all wondrous things, whether past or to be. ¶11

May that noble-willed Aditya every day make our course (destiny) pleasant

And extend and fulfill our lifespan! ¶12

(Like Sun and Wind) Varuna bedazzles people with gross manifestations,

Pure brilliance (omniscience) and dreams (or night). ¶13

Whom no cheats, rebels and conceited men dare to stand. ¶14

He who gives comprehensive glory and wealth, inside and outside,

To men and to us, seated within us. ¶15

Like cows yearn for barns,

So my aspirations go toward you, one with wide vision. ¶16

Like the priest and host who cooperate for removal of ignorance,

So we (teacher and taught) may repeatedly exchange sweet knowledge. ¶17

So that I patiently realise all-adorable and vehicle (chariot, or means to liberation),

Accept and employ my speeches (hymns). ¶18

O Varuna, listen to my prayer and be well disposed to us today.

Keen for your protection, I laud you. ¶19

O intuitive Varuna, you preside though time heaven and celestial bodies,

Whether self-luminous or not. Listen to our prayers. ¶20

For blessed life, release us; destroy our shackles superior, inferior and intermediate. ¶21  

God agni

Rishi Sunah Sepa Ājīgarti (RV I.26)


O benign dispenser! O lord of potent energy (priest)!

You wear the robes and make our well-intended Yajña auspicious. ¶1

O mighty priest (Agni), you chosen benefactor (hotā) should ever make

The enlightening words (hymns) compatible, with propitious will or principles. ¶2

Like father for son, relative for relative, and favourite friend for friend, so you do. ¶3

Friendly Mitra, favour-granter Varuna and honour-keeper Aryman:

All evil-destroyers should visit us, like men do. ¶4

O primeval benefactor (hotā), accept our friendly service (ritual).

Listen to our prayer (hymn) well. ¶5

In adherence to ancient custom, whatever we pray/offer to this or that god;

That offering is made to you alone. ¶6

Dear to us be pleasant, beloved hotā (karma-dispenser) and lord of subjects!

[As] we are your favourite and summon Agni for common weal. ¶7

Well adored gods shower well-being on us; thus Agni-minded we believe. ¶8

O immortal god, the praises of men of two (savant and layman) types

Should be mutually benefiting. ¶9

O savant user of Agni! With all these fires,

Enjoy vigorously the Yajña (Cosmic Upkeep), this speech (hymn) and their fruits. ¶10

Gods agni (1-12), Vishve devas (13)

Rishi Sunah Sepa Ājīgarti (RV I.27)


[We proceed] with salutations to glorify you Agni who is like long-tailed horse.

You are the light and guide of all sacred rites. ¶1

Long tails keep flies away. Likewise Agni dispels evil and enemy.

He indeed like capable son is far-ranging and fulfills aspirations.

He should be ours impressively. ¶2

God giving all life, you ever indeed protect us from sinful mortal, from near and from far. ¶3

O Agni, you verily reveal to gods (or sages) and to us

The ever-renewing, beneficial hymns (the Vedas). ¶4

Bring us gains from our medium and supreme campaigns.

Teach us the ultimate art of wealth-creation. ¶5

O resplendent one, like waves of ocean, you are our benefactor.

Close and quick, you shower on the surrenderor or offeror of oblations. ¶6

O Agni, the mortal whom you protect amidst rival armies and

Whom you lead into campaigns and battles,

He owns (and rules) beginningless subjects and wealth. ¶7

O tolerant one,, no man whatsoever can overpower him;

His power is illustrious (or inspiring). ¶8

The universal champion steers us clear in battles with cavalrymen

And favours us with capable counsellors. ¶9

O object of lauds, you accept and grace hearts of all people.

This noble stoma (hymn) is for the venerable and fierce (rudra). ¶10

He is vast, astronomical, smoke-bannered, pleasing-all.

He may stir up in us wisdom and will (venture). ¶11

Like wealthy, he is divine, lord of men, mark of auspices, highly resplendent.

(Lauded) with hymns, he should listen to us (or our prayer). ¶12

O gods (or learned men), salutation to the great and small, young and old.

Wherever possible we adore noble gods

And never defy their hymns (or inspirations). ¶13  

Gods indra, Yajña, Soma

Rishi Sunah Sepa Ājīgarti (RV I.28)


When the broad-based stone is raised

Above ground [as mortar] to separate chaff.

O Indra, protect the foods threshed in the mortar day in and day out. ¶1

Like two thighs [used in walking], use the two stones to thresh and separate chaff;

O Indra, protect the foods threshed in the mortar day in and day out. ¶2

Where the women learn to lift and drop the pestle [rhythmically];

O Indra, protect the foods threshed in the mortar day in and day out. ¶3

Like Sun using rays, like charioteer using reins,

So the ropes are tightened around churning pestle;

O Indra, protect the foods threshed in the mortar day in and day out. ¶4

O mortar-pestle, you are fitted in every home,

Produce hail sounds like kettle-drum of conquers. ¶5

O god of forests, as your wind that boosts and raises the herbs (plants) tall,

Then thresh out Soma (tonic) in the mortar for power and sustenance. ¶6

Thus vitalised with tonics and thus committed, people win battles,

Perform and achieve heights, like steeds. ¶7

The two heavy wooden mortar-pestle are used today by learned folks

To thresh sweet juice for power. ¶8

Detoxify and vitalise (or motivate) the two armies with pressed Soma.

Arrange them (armies) on the land. ¶9  

God indra

Rishi Sunah Sepa Ājīgarti (RV I.29)


O truthful  and enjoyer/protector of Soma (or creations) [Indra], though we be infamous,

O infinitely wealthy Indra! You bless us and adorn us with thousands of

Sacred cows (or wisdom) and horses (or power). ¶1

O savant, venturesome leader of battles (or campaigns)! Your works are mighty.

O infinitely wealthy Indra &c. ¶2

Remove the delusional dream and laziness that mutually feed.

O infinitely wealthy Indra &c. ¶3

O hero, dormant be the meanness and active be the bounties!

O infinitely wealthy Indra &c. ¶4

O Indra, punish donkey-like man who mischievously misfeeds and misleads.

O infinitely wealthy Indra &c. ¶5

The wind moves in complex paths to uphold the world.

O infinitely wealthy Indra &c. ¶6

Subdue annoyance and eliminate tormentor.

O infinitely wealthy Indra &c. ¶7

Gods indra, Ashvins (17-19), Ushas (20-22)

Rishi Sunah Sepa Ājīgarti (RV I.30)


Like people irrigate with water from well and

Like fierce winds deliver water (Indu) to Sun of mighty deeds,

So you deliver felicity (Indu) to people. ¶1

He (Indra) is known as the centre of hundreds of holy instruments

And produces thousands of delicious foods and fruits. ¶2

To enchant and empower, he holds in his ocean-like belly

Enormous wealth and potent ways. ¶3

This is your grace reaching (or manifesting in) our speech (or hymns) and life,

Like a pigeon reaches its mate. ¶4

O hero and lauded lord of riches, your hymn may bring true glory! ¶5

O lord of great power, stand up for our protection in this battle.

Elsewhere too we two may go with consensus. ¶6

In every accomplishment and in every battle,

We together as colleagues pray to mightier Indra for protection. ¶7

If he listens to our prayer, he attends us with endless wealth and protection. ¶8

Whom in the past your guardian (father or guide) invoked,

To him eternal, abode and leader manifesting in all, accordingly I pray. ¶9

O most-lauded friend, abode, manifesting all objects!

To you like that, we, hymn-chanters, aspire for inspiration/guidance. ¶10

O friend, thunder-armed, Somapā (enjoyer or guardian of bliss/creations)!

We look for you, the guardian:

Of us, your votaries, participating and celebrating your creations and

Of our charming/intelligent and companion wives. ¶11

O thunder-armed and Somapā! Be it so to us

As we wish from you champion for fulfilment. ¶12

Richly endowed, empowering be our feasts.

Wealthy thus, we may celebrate. ¶13

O indomitable, you are self-realised, unlike anyone else,

Moving all this world. You are connected to hymn-chanters,

Like (unmoving) axle to wheel. ¶14

O source of countless simultaneous activities! With auspicious powers,

You serve desires of hymn-chanters who constantly attend you, like axle. ¶15

Eternal Indra, moving in his golden chariot, wins the treasures,

Working through thunderous massive objects and lovely creatures.

The giver of gifts or karma fruits blessed us with all this for our enjoyment. ¶16

O two Ashvins! O redeemers (or healers)!

Grace the rich, golden chariot with desirable speed and motion. ¶17

O healer Ashvins! Your unmanned chariot (ship) driven by twin powers

Cruises the oceanic cosmos. ¶18

Top and lower wheels of this benign ship take you afar to skies as well. ¶19

O lovely, immortal, illumining Ushas (Dawn)!

Which mortal does not benefit from you! Whom you do not bless! ¶20

For, we as alert as on horseback going near or far, meditate (or benefit)

In your wondrous, auspicious time. ¶21

O daughter (herald) of Sun (or light, intuitive perception)!

You grace us with those opportune riches.

Establish us in fortunes. ¶22  

Gods Vishve devas (All gods)

Rishi Gotama Rāhūgana (RV I.89)


Noble (bhadra) intentions/powers from all realms may overwhelm us,

Which are unharming, indispensable and uplifting;

So that unrelenting guardian gods day in and day out promote

Our prosperity (or wisdom rallies) for a long, long age. ¶1

May the noble insight of dutiful gods make our life easy and simple!

We may land in the bounty of gracious gods!

We may secure auspicious company/favour of the gods!

Gods may extend our life for fulfilment! ¶2

With the ancient Vedic hymn, we invoke gods Bhaga (Bliss),

Friendly Mitra (god of day and in-breath), Aditi (splendid Nature or Holy Speech),

Unharming Daksha (skillful or perceptive creator), honour-keeping Aryaman,

Favourite or favour-granter Varuna (god of night and out-breath),

Sober Soma, twin Ashvins (enhancing vitality and firming lore) and

Auspicious Sarasvati (goddess of learning and water) showering felicity and rains. ¶3

May felicitous Wind [as Prāna] blow to heal us;

So do the mother Earth and the father Heaven nurse;

So too ecstatic savants (or stones or clouds dripping Soma [nectar]) promote our well-being!

O mystic Ashvins, promoting practical wisdom, answer our prayer. ¶4

To supreme lord of mobile and stationary, fulfilling us mentally and inspiring our thinking,

We invoke for protection and well being (svasti)

So that Pushan (nourisher or Sun) foster our body, wealth and vision. ¶5

May Indra, lord of ancient/ageless fame, riches and inspirations (sravas),

Be well-disposed to us! May all-reaching Pushan foster and nurture us well!

May Tārkshya of unhampered and salutary rule (or cylce of life) make our course safe!

May magnificent Brihaspati be gracious unto us! ¶6

Those strong and fast Maruts, storm gods (or priests or heroes),

Borne in skies (or wide ranging or well knows),

Leaders and accomplishers in fights and debates;

Those wise, far-sighted (brilliant like Sun), with Agni-inspired speech (or offering oblations),

Vishve Devas should attend us and bestow protection. ¶7

O gods (or learned men), may we hear what is noble!

O altruist sacrificers (priests), may we see what is noble!

May we, blessed with sturdy limbs and bodies and lauding you,

Enjoy the god-allotted life span in service of gods or all life (deva-hita)! ¶8

O blessed and companion gods, for hundred autumns (years),

We may live until our bodies age and our sons grow into mature guardians (or fathers).

Do not kill us in the midst. ¶9

Aditi (= eternal, recurring Nature or Holy Speech ) is the heaven; Aditi, the sky;

Aditi, the mother, father and son; Aditi is Vishve Devas; Aditi, five senses (i.e. men);

Aditi, the born (that happened); Aditi, to be born (or yet to happen). ¶10  

Gods VISHVE DEVAS (1-41), Vak & Apas (42),

SakadhŪma & soma (43), Agni-Vayu-Surya (44),

Vak (45), surya (46-47), samvatsara-Ātman KĀla (time) (48),

Sarasvati (49), sĀdhyas (50), Surya/parjanya or Agnis (51), SarasvĀn or Surya (52)

Rishi Dīrghatamas (RV I.164)


Of this splendid nurturer (or ancient) hotā (i.e. Sun),

His middle benign brother (i.e. of mid-region) is Lightning (i.e. Indra);

His third brother (i.e. earthly Agni) is fortified by ghee (or purified butter) or rain cycle;

In seven-coloured Sun, I have seen Ātman (Universal Self),

Who is the lord of subjects and who purifies seven organs (5 senses, mind and intellect). ¶1

The seven organs fitted in body (chariot) connect to lovely Jeeva (Individual Self)

Who acts as the navel of the chariot’s wheel.

Like horse, the one Jeeva equipped with these organs,

Who has triune navel (of goodness, passion and darkness) and is unageing and unfailing,

Goes [as Ātman] wherein all the worlds rest. (1) ¶2

The seven rays connect to the one moving Sun,

Who unageing, unsupported, alone, yet pervading all regions (asva) in three main seasons

Creates the cycle of year in which all the creations (or worlds) rest. (2) ¶2

These seven rest in the chariot or lovely (body or Sun); the seven like steeds carry it to places.

The self-moving seven converge in there

Where rays or senses are seated as instruments of attraction (gravitation and temptation). ¶3

Rays attract (sip) water as said in the mantra 7 below. Or rays keep celestial bodies in orbit.

Who witnessed first [at creation] the frame of bones (i.e. body) being brought forth

Which the boneless Nature or Jeeva carries!

Where the life, blood and soul in the earth was (based in space)!

Who can ask that Omniscient about this! ¶4

Nothing existed before Him or existed separate from Him. What supported him?

Illiterate but pure and simple (in need of protection and guidance),

I do not clearly know these marks of the gods printed all over the enjoyable world,

Woven by the seers from the seven threads (senses or rays). ¶5

Like learned, I though ignorant ask the seers for enlightenment:

Whether he is the One unborn (unchanging)

AND still supporting the six seasons and regions of the world. ¶6

O dear, there one who completely knows may explain us

This splendid bird-like Sun’s status in the sky:

Rays of the Sun assuming its form drink water with their feet from top of surface. ¶7

As part of Rta (Cosmic Order), mother (Earth/Speech) emerged/sprang

From father and guardian [Sun/Ātman]; which earlier were one by source and science.

Mother was frightening one, with water at core and perfectly in orbit (well ordained);

Accordingly, celestial bodies acquired their names

(Or devoted people acquired perceptive eloquence.) ¶8

Mother is stationed in the fast, fixed orbit and

Sun stays tucked, as if in womb of orbit because of gravitational forces.

The Sun (calf) nurses in return with rays the three realms of worldly forms. ¶9

The One bearing three mothers [sattva, rajas and tamas causal qualities] and

The three fathers [Agni, Indra and Aditya (Sun)] stands above all this;

Whom the learned resting in the Divine cannot exactly express

But ponder Holy Speech encompassing whole world, not within reach of common man. ¶10

O inspired man (Agni), here the wheel of Rta with 12 spokes (i.e. year)

Perpetually revolves round the skies; its pairs of sons (days and nights) are 720 in all. ¶11

The learned see the supreme source of Divine Will in the form of Sun or Year,

The five-footed [viz. five elements] guardian pervading

Physical forms of 12 (senses, mind and intellect) [or physical forms throughout 12 months];

While others see Him resting within as Seer/Witness,

The unattached navel of seven face-openings and six directions. ¶12

O Agni, in the revolving wheel of five spokes (five elements)

Are supported all the creations and worlds;

Its eternal axle [Ātman, one with Brahma] in spite of enormous load

Neither dissolves nor decays. ¶13

This wheel of time, with the axle of Ātman revolves tirelessly;

Wherein ten directions criss-cross the sprawling universe;

In whom Sun's light goes with the world and manifests it;

Wherein verily are seated all the creations and worlds. ¶14

One [Jeeva] is the seventh together with six divine sages (or 5 senses and mind)

Ruling and illumining (manifesting) things and chalking out their course;

Their prescribed various modifications and functions emerge for Jeeva

As were situationally appropriate: so declare the knowers of reality. ¶15

Those men becoming women, and women men: so was revealed to me.

Only the learned knows this, not the ignorant;

The son who knows this secret of beings is seer (kavi);

He is the father (saviour) of even the (biological) father. ¶16

Ātman is gender and age neutral. According to Manu, true father (saviour) is the one who knows the secret of mantra (hymn) and explains that to people.

Cow bearing the calf has risen using this than that foot, or [sometimes] that than this.

Whither it is heading! What it precisely points to! [Ātman, the realiser and indescribable!]

Where it produces! Not in group (i.e. unassisted)! ¶17

Cow here refers to Earth, Holy Speech or even Jeeva; calf refers to world/Jeeva, Sun or body, respectively. For example, in the case of Earth, the mantra can be rephrased as:

Earth bearing the Sun/Jeeva [viz. Earth’s oval orbit enveloping Sun as if in womb] has risen,

Moving on this (low) than that (high) path, or that than this.

Whither it is heading! Where it goes to in dark half!

Where it produces! [In the air!] Not in group (i.e. unassisted)! ¶17

Who knows this lower one (Fire) father as the far above one (Sun), he knows.

Who can exactly explain: where from this divine revelation arises! ¶18

O sober man (Soma), the low are called high by some who live in lower worlds (or states);

The high worlds are called low by others who live in higher worlds:

Sun and Wind create those (relative) worlds, moving like wheel revolving on axle. ¶19

TWO fair-winged (suparna) BIRDS [being conscious] connected by friendly bond

TAKE SHELTER on the same fig tree;

One of the two [greedily/passionately] eats sweet fruit of the tree

While the other one [unattached] simply witnesses all this. ¶20

Nested in the Omniscient, fair-minded men

Constantly speak of the blissful experience of immortality;

That intuitive lord and keeper of all creations may enable

My (ignorant's) entry into magnificent realm. (1) ¶21

Where the freely moving senses in their proper function

Constantly assimilate and manifest the blissful knowledge gathered from outside;

That intuitive lord and protector of this mini world (i.e. physical body)

May enlighten me (the immature in knowledge of Ātman). (2) ¶21

Where the pleasantly flowing/falling sunrays (dispelling darkness)

In their proper capacity constantly carry the nectar (water) drawn from earth;

That intuitive lord and keeper of all creations may enable

My (ignorant's) entry into magnificent realm. (3) ¶21

On the same tree, fair-minded men, the enjoyers of Bliss (madhu vidya)

Indeed rest in repose and thrive along with progeny;

That fruit (of knowledge) alone is called sweet from ancient time;

That one does not gain who does not know the true father/guardian. ¶22

Holy Speech in the figure of Cow

Saviour of hymn chanter that lies hidden within hymn of Gāyatrī metre;

From thrice-worshipped [i.e. with action, devotion and knowledge],

Trishtup [world of sattva, rajas and tamas attributes] is born;

Or Jagatī (metre) holds ultimate truth or life-principle (i.e. Prāna) within changing world:

Those who know him [Ātman hidden in Holy Speech of 7 metres] attain immortality. ¶23

With Gāyatrī hymns, one lauds the Venerable (Arka, object of Rik);

With Arka, one acquires Sāma (= serene) mind and chants;

With thrice worshipped Trishtup or thrice-worshipped Brahma,

One masters Holy Speech (Vāk);

Seven Vedic metres in the form of Eternal Speech express their source (also called Vāk)

Uttered through bipeds and quadrupeds. ¶24

With the creation of world (or with Jagatī hymn),

Lord firmed ocean and Sun in beautiful sky and oversees;

Brahma’s (Gāyatra’s) are called three powers (sattva, rajas and tamas; or even three times);

Thence with great eminence He exceeds all. ¶25

I invoke the wish-granting Cow (Holy Speech) whom the deft-handed Indra milks.

The creator (Savitri) with resplendent heightened heat (tapas)

May create admirable rain/milk (called sava) for us; this (secret) I should well proclaim. ¶26

This not worth harming (Aghnya), goddess of vasus (of wealth and water) Cow (Holy Speech)

Readily presents herself lowing and longing for her calf (Sun or Wind supporting world);

So she produces milk (or water, in the case of Holy Speech)

And promotes magnificent weal and felicity. ¶27

Holy Speech (Cow) calls (invites) to her the unconscious world (calf) for comforting

And thunders (mows) and stirs Sun to nurse it (or licks calf's forehead to nurse it).

Desiring the creative heat of sunrays that draw water up (in case of calf warmly sucking milk),

She feeds the world (calf) with waters (milk). ¶28

When that cloud thunders; prompted by him,

Cow (Holy Speech) hiding within clouds makes sound (or proclaims herself as Sun).

Becoming thunder and lightning it thrills and frightens mortals,

Then with rains it covers earth and again hides its form. ¶29

Giving physical life to and speedily moving Jeeva,

The immobile Brahma rests within bodies and worlds.

Having his source within same Brahma, immortal lord (Jeeva) of mortal body

Goes here and there moving with the changing world. ¶30

I must see (realise) the unfailing (or kind) Keeper of Universe Ātman [though unknowable]

Moving by far and near paths, He ever dwells in (and keeps returning to)

Homogeneous and heterogeneous creations in all directions of the world. (1) ¶31

I must see (realise) Sun as unfailing (or kind) keeper of universe [through rains and light]

Rising in front and setting behind, he ever embodies similar and dissimilar lights (e.g. moon)

Returns to promote the worlds again and again. (2) ¶31

Births or Rains

One who begets or believes in birth (or mortal growth), does not know the reality;

But who knows it different from mother's womb enveloping and rearing it knows that:

Born again and again [as part of Rta, karma justice] people get into misery. (1) 32

One who knows that clouds rain on earth does not know the reality of Sun [true cause of Rta];

But who knows Sun enveloped in the womb of space (or in deep space) knows that:

By whose virtue, rains come to earth and creations thrive. (2) ¶32

Dyaus (Heaven) is my father (guardian), the begetter; there exists common origin (kinship).

The vast Earth is my kin and mother (nurturer).

Between the two raised Earth and Heaven (i.e. in the mid-region),

Father (Sun) laid seed for the birth of daughter (dawn). ¶33

I ask you the extreme limit of Earth, I ask (too) where the centre of world is;

I ask (also) the strength (or motive behind) of the fast-moving wish-fulfiller (horse-like Sun),

(So) I ask the highest heaven (or limit or objective) of the speech (or Holy Speech). ¶34

This altar (for Yajña) is the extreme limit of earth

[Earth is round; you reach it again if you keep going in one direction];

This Yajña (Cosmic Upkeep) is central (crucial) to the world;

Soma (Bliss) is the strength (or motive) of the fast-moving wish-fulfiller (horse-like Sun);

Brahma is the highest heaven (or limit/objective) of the speech (or Holy Speech). ¶35

Seven rich in creation (5 elements, ego and ‘great’ principle) stay in the unlike one

As the seed of this world, under auspices of Vishnu;

These comprehensively encompass all with powers and divine will. ¶36

I do not know as long as I associate or identify with this (body);

I wander like slave with this (delusional) thought.

When I realise (myself) as the first born (or initiator) of Rta (Cosmic Order),

Then only I taste the bliss of this Holy Speech. ¶37

The immortal (Jeeva), though of common origin, gripped by lower, mutable Nature (Prakriti)

Goes all over high and low paths with the mortal body.

Both (Ātman and Prakriti) are eternal (ceaseless) and go together,

But are opposite in character (one conscious, other not);

The wise distinguish them; the fools do not. ¶38

In the supreme heaven of Rik’s akshara

Whereunder All Gods [keepers of Rta, cosmic order and water] bide in repose;  

What one not knowing that will do with the sacred Rik!

They know that alone attain the privileged haven. ¶39

The Rik’s akshara here refers to (1) immutable sound (i.e. Om) or Brahma and (2) the truth extolled/propounded by the sacred Rik (or the Rig Veda mantra). The mantra is highly critical of people who either do not know Brahma or do not have faith in the verity (truth) of the Vedas. [The Vedas are called the Holy Speech.]

O venerable and evil/sin dispelling Aghnyā (wish fulfilling Cow and Holy Speech),

Become luxuriant with milk (water and food)

So we may flourish and possess luxuries (riches).

Ever gracing us, eat the grass/plants (or tear cloud in the case of Holy Speech)

And drink (or preserve) pure/vital water. ¶40

Gauri (Cow or Holy Speech) moos and creates [the world] by creating waters;

She goes by steps or names: one, two, four, eight and nine.

She is infinite store of waters [and truth/intuitions: akshara (i.e. Rta)]

And is seated in the highest heaven [Brahma]. ¶41

Steps could be mid-region, mid-region and heaven, four/eight directions, and directions plus Sun. Names could be Brahma, Purusha-Prakriti, moral-means-desire-salvation, eight Yoga limbs or siddhis and nine (seven facial openings, mind and intellect).

By her grace, intuitions inundate; by her grace, creatures in four directions have life;

From her pours the unending stream of water [i.e. akshara]

That is the blood and soul of whole universe.¶42

I have closely seen the potent, shaker (or awe-creating) [Ātman]

Far superior to this wandering Jeeva

(Or the beneficially potent sacrificial smoke, rising above and spreading as cloud).

The resolute firm the vision of that fostering, sky-like Soma (bliss)

(Or facilitate rain cloud with offerings of Soma at Yajña);

Those canons verily are the fundamental ones. ¶43

Three lights (kesins) nurse the world through seasons in a year:

One (Agni or fire) sows the seed for activities (or rain),

One (Aditya or Sun) with light rays stimulates and oversees activities of the world

[Because people work during day and sleep at night; plants make food in day light.]

Movement of another (Vayu or wind) is seen but not its form. ¶44

Speech has four clear forms all of which (only) the intellectual Brahma-knowers know.

Three that are hidden deep within do not reveal and make sense [for common man]:

Common folks speak the speech’s fourth colloquial form. ¶45

Three hidden forms are Rik, Sama and Yajus (i.e. the three types of Vedic hymns). Or these could be truth, consciousness and bliss, that are indescribable and beyond imagination for common folks.

They call [the great Surya or Self (Ātman)] as Indra, Mitra, Varuna and Agni:

Who is heavenly Sun graciously marching in skies, and life and soul of universe.

Intuitive people see that one reality in many ways

And call Him as Agni, Yama (Controller/Death) and Mātarisvan (Vayu). ¶46

This explanation is in line with the mantra god, Surya.

Freely flying rays (suparna) bearing the water drawn

Rise to the storehouse heaven [during northward Sun],

Then they return from the house of Rta (i.e. Sun) [during Southward Sun]

And later shower water (or ghee) on the earth. ¶47

Twelve months (as fellies) in the wheel of year, with nave of three main seasons:

Who understands this mystery

In which are fixed 360 spokes (of days) that move and still move not! ¶48

O Sarasvati (Goddess of Holy Speech and Water)!

Your that breast, endless source of nourishment and felicity

Fosters all with cherished wealth (of wisdom, water and felicity),

That bountiful (breast) is treasure house of jewels and riches, open it for upholding us. ¶49

Gods (or learned men) worshipped Agni (= Yajña) with the fire ritual;

Those verily were the first canons/dicta (dharmas).

They became eminent ones and attained the highest heaven (nāka)

In which former godly Sādhyas were dwelling as well. ¶50

In eternal cycle, same water rises up with days (of northward Sun)

And then returns [during southward Sun].

Rain clouds sate the earth; and (sacrificial) fires, the heaven. ¶51

I invoke for protection the vast Surya whose rays or stimuli move (the world),

Who is Sarasvat (God of Holy Speech and Water), storehouse of waters,

Manifester of herbs, soaking and sating us with waters completely. ¶52